Definition of organic chemistry
Earlier people thought that compounds which are obtained from plants and animals are called organic compounds and compounds which are obtained from minerals, non-living sources are termed as inorganic compounds. However, the trendy definition of organic compounds could be a bit completely different from the present.
Although the original meaning of the term organic chemistry no longer applies, it has been retained because of wide usage and because so many of the substances involved in organic chemistry do come directly or indirectly from living matter.
The modern definition may most simply be stated as :
Organic chemistry is outlined because of the study of carbon compounds. However, there are several exceptions :
Carbon monoxide CO Carbonates e.g., Na2CO3 Thiocyanates, e.g. NaSCN
Carbon dioxide CO2 Bicarbonates e.g., NaHCO3 Cyanates, e.g. KOCN
These compounds are studied as part of inorganic chemistry because of their properties.
Classification of organic chemistry compounds
Organic compounds are divided into five categories :
(1) Aliphatic Compounds: Compounds which consist of open-chain of carbon atoms are aliphatic compounds.T here is no limit to the number of atoms involved. Examples are :
Ethyl alcohol CH3-CH2¬¬-OH
(2) Saturated and Unsaturated Compounds: Compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. An organic compound is alleged to be saturated if it contains solely C-C single bonds. A hydrocarbon is said to be unsaturated if it contains C=C or C≡C multiple bonds.
Example are :
The term unsaturation is sometimes used to describe a compound containing multiple bonds between other pairs of atoms, e.g. C=O, C≡N
(3) Aromatic Compounds: Benzene and all compounds that have structures and chemical properties resembling benzene are called an aromatic compound.
(4) Alicyclic Compounds: Cyclic compound s which consists only of carbon atoms are called an alicyclic or carbocyclic compound.
(5) Heterocyclic Compounds: Cyclic compounds in which the ring atoms are of carbon and some other element (for example N, S or O) are called a heterocyclic compound.
Structure of organic compound
- Whenever carbon is bonded to four other atoms or groups (as in methane or ethane) it always uses sp3 hybrid orbitals to form its bond.
- Whenever carbon is bonded to three other atoms or groups (as in ethylene) it always uses sp2 hybrid orbitals and a p-orbital to form its bonds.
- Whenever carbon is bonded to two other atoms or groups (as in acetylene), it always sp hybrid orbitals and two p-orbitals to form its bonds.
- Whenever nitrogen is bonded to two other atoms or groups (as in1◦), it generally uses sp3 hybrid orbitals to bonds. The forth sp3 hybrid orbital contains the lone-pair electrons.
- Whenever nitrogen is bonded to two order atoms or groups (as in mines), it uses two sp2 hybrid orbitals to form its bonds. The third hybrid orbital is completely filled and contains the lone pair of electrons.
- Whenever nitrogen is bonded to one other atom or a group (as in acetonitrile ), it uses one sp hybrid orbital to form its bonds. The second sp orbital is completely filled and contains the lone –pair of electrons.
- Whenever oxygens are bonded is bonded to two other atoms or groups (as in alcohols and others), it generally uses two sp3 hybrid orbitals to form its bonds remaining two sp3 hybrid orbitals are completely filled and lone-pair electrons.
- Whenever oxygen is bonded to one other atom or a group (as in aldehydes and ketones), it uses one sp2 hybrid orbital to form its bonds. The remaining two sp2 hybrid orbitals are completely filled and contain the lone- pair of electrons.
Characteristics of Organic Compounds
- They can be isolated as well as prepared in the laboratory
- They are volatile in nature.
- They do not furnish ions. They show molecular reactions.
- They have low melting and boiling points.
- They are generally insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
- They are bad conductors of electricity.
- They are mostly built up of only three elements- carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Other elements like halogen, nitrogen as well as phosphorous are also present but to a lesser extent.
- They are combustible in nature.
- Chemical reactions involving organic compounds proceed at slower rates.
- They possess a distinct color and odor.
Properties of Compounds of Organic Chemistry
The property of organic compounds in Organic chemistry may be outlined as a property that doesn’t alter the chemical characteristics of a compound. It consists of qualitative as well as quantitative qualities. Boiling purpose, melting point and index of refraction constitute quantitative data. Colour, solubility, odor, and consistency constitutes quantitative qualities.
Solids: They’re organic compounds possessing distinct form and volume.
Liquid: It’s associate chemical compound possessing less distinct from and volume compared to solids.
Solubility: Solubility is that the property of a solid, liquid, or vaporific chemical substance referred to as matter to dissolve in an exceedingly liquid solvent.
Melting Point: It’s one among the very important property of the associated chemical compound.
Boiling purpose: It identifies the physical properties of organic compounds. It varies depending upon the surrounding environment.
People often ask who is the father of organic chemistry?
The answer is Friedrich Wöhler. Friedrich Wöhler is known as the father of Organic chemistry. He was trying to make ammonium cyanate and luckily able to synthesize an organic compound (Urea) from inorganic compounds in the laboratory.
Importance of organic compound in daily life
The study of organic chemistry is important for chemists and pharmacists in order to synthesize medicines for the alleviation of human suffering.
1. Polymers are made up of long molecular chains and branches. We tend to encounter
common polymer organic molecules on a daily basis, e.g. acrylic, nylon, polycarbonate, cellulose, PVC, and polyethylene.
2. Petrochemical products are derived chemicals from crude oil or petroleum and and and and and and are divided into organic compounds in accordance with the completely different boiling points of the organic compounds. Examples include dyes, food additives, petrochemical compounds, gasoline, dyes, food additives, and natural gas.
3. Organic chemistry plays an essential part in our daily life because food, clothes, paper, ink, rubber, soap, perfumes, medicines etc. are indispensable to us for proper living.
4. The cosmetics industry is a lucrative sector of organic chemistry. Chemists likewise as Pharmacists examine changes among the skin in response to metabolic and environmental factors, formulate products to address skin problems and enhance beauty, and analyze how cosmetics interact with the skin and other products.
5. Whether a perfume fragrance comes from a flower or a lab, the molecules we smell and enjoy are an example of organic chemistry.
A sample of Products With Common Organic Chemicals which are used in our daily life :
6) Food and food additives
9) Insect repellent
10) Synthetic fabrics (nylon, polyester, rayon)
12) Mothballs (naphthalene)
14) Nail polish remover
17) Natural gas
The role of organic chemistry in pharmacy
Chemistry is very important in pharmacy, as most drugs are organic and inorganic materials prepared in the laboratory, as well as industry. Organic chemistry is the heart to the pharmacy, without it the pharmacy failed.
There are some vital points of organic chemistry which plays an important role in pharmacy :
1) Medicines or drugs that we take for the treatment of various ailments are Medicines or drugs that we take for the treatment of various ailments are chemicals, either organic or inorganic. Aspirin as an example.
2) Organic chemistry is really important for medical discovery. Moreover, drugs from organic compounds tend to be safer compared to drugs from a laboratory experiment.
3) Here’s the importance of organic chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry. Not solely chemistry provides cure to the malady, through this field people can also discover the cause of disease.
4) In pharmaceutical, it is important that the right medicine or treatment will help human to have better health. To find out the benefit and which chemical is more crucial for the body, thus people can find the attachment right pattern of diet.
5) A pharmacist should have sufficient knowledge of organic chemistry as the basis of drug prescription. Therefore, it’s a requirement for medical students to find out regarding chemistry. Any occupation associated with the sphere ought to feel at home with the science. Therefore, one among the importance of chemistry is to complement medical study because the information is crucial during this field.
The role of organic chemistry in Agriculture
The domestication of plants and animals during the Bronze Age (9000 BC), from hunting and gathering to selective hunting, herding and, finally, to settling farming, was transformed into an early homo sapiens profession. The advances made in science and chemical engineering to maximize the yields of crops and animal products depend very heavily on modern agriculture. In this field, fertilizers, pesticides, and antibiotics play a growing role.
There’s some important role in agriculture, given below :
There are three major foes that impact plant health: insects, weeds, and fungi. Organic chemists and farmers work along to develop pesticides which will shield plants from these nemeses nonetheless keep the humans World Health Organization eventually eat these plants (us) safe.
Example: Diazinon, an insecticide (kills insects). Glyphosate, a herbicide (kills weeds). Chlorothalonil, a fungicide (kills fungus).
Fertilizer is any organic or inorganic material of natural or artificial origin that’s added to a soil to produce one or a lot of plant nutrients essential to the expansion of plants. A recent assessment found that regarding forty to hr of crop yields area unit thanks to business chemical use.
Any natural or artificial organic or inorganic soil added to produce one or many plant nutrients essential for plant expansion is fertilizer. Recent evaluation has shown that, thanks to business chemical use, the area of yield is between 40 and hr of crop.
• six micronutrients: gas (K), calcium (Ca), magnesiu,(N), phosphorus (P), potassium(Mg) and sulfur (S);
• seven micronutrients: chemical element (B), chlorine (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn)
Organic fertilizers from composts and various sources are usually of varying amounts. From batch to batch they may vary considerably. Applied nutrient quantities can not be exactly familiar without batch testing. However, over longer periods of use they will be at least as effective as chemical fertilizers.